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Occurs in Pinal County. Common in Arizona.

Chemical Formula: CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O

Specific Gravity: 2.6-2.8

Luster: Waxy to vitreous

Hardness: 5-6 Turquoise is a copper aluminum phosphate mineral that often forms as blue to blue-green masses or nodules. It has been used for jewelry and ornamentation for thousands of years.

Next Pinal County mineral: Tyrolite

A Gemstone of Geological Splendor

Turquoise is a gemstone that has captivated cultures around the world for thousands of years. Turquoise has a distinct blue-green color, often associated with the American Southwest and particularly with the state of Arizona.

Geological Significance of Turquoise

Turquoise is a hydrous phosphate mineral with a chemical formula of CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O. It belongs to the mineral group of phosphates and is chemically a hydrated copper and aluminum phosphate.

Turquoise is formed through complex geological processes involving the interaction of copper-rich solutions with aluminum-rich rocks.

Most turquoise deposits are found in arid or semi-arid regions where the necessary geological conditions for its formation are present. Arizona’s geology provides the perfect setting for turquoise deposition, with copper-rich ores and aluminum-rich host rocks being prevalent in certain regions of the state.

Properties and Uses of Turquoise

Turquoise is renowned for its striking blue-green color, which varies from sky blue to shades of green depending on its copper and iron content. The gemstone is typically translucent to opaque with a waxy to subvitreous luster. It is often found in nodular or massive forms, and its appearance can be enhanced through polishing and shaping.

The unique properties of turquoise have made it a cherished gemstone throughout human history. It has been used extensively in jewelry and ornamentation by various cultures across the globe.

Native American tribes, such as the Navajo and Zuni, have a deep cultural connection to turquoise and incorporate it into their traditional jewelry and art forms.

Turquoise Mining in Arizona

Arizona has a long history of turquoise mining, with the stone being valued and utilized by Native American tribes for centuries. The state’s geological richness and the presence of copper deposits have made it a significant source of turquoise deposits.

One of the most famous turquoise mines in Arizona is the Sleeping Beauty Mine, located in Globe, Gila County, Arizona. This mine, named after the nearby Sleeping Beauty Mountains, was a prolific source of high-quality turquoise for many years. The mine closed in 2012. The turquoise from this mine is characterized by its vivid blue color and lack of matrix (host rock) inclusions, making it highly sought after by artisans and collectors.

Other notable turquoise mines in Arizona include the Kingman Mine, the Bisbee Mine, and the Morenci Mine, each known for producing turquoise with distinct characteristics and colors.

Cultural Significance of Turquoise in Arizona

Turquoise holds profound cultural significance for the Native American tribes of Arizona and the broader Southwest region. It has been used in traditional jewelry, pottery, and art for both practical and ceremonial purposes. For many tribes, turquoise is believed to possess spiritual and healing properties, making it an essential component of religious rituals and tribal ceremonies.

In addition to its significance within Native American cultures, turquoise has become an iconic symbol of the American Southwest and has been embraced by artists and designers across the world. The gemstone’s vibrant color and association with the region’s landscapes have made it a popular choice in Southwestern-themed jewelry and artworks.

Conservation and Sustainability

With the increasing demand for turquoise in the global market, the sustainability of turquoise mining becomes a critical concern. Responsible mining practices, environmental stewardship, and ethical sourcing are essential to ensure the long-term viability of turquoise deposits and the preservation of the landscapes from which it is extracted.


Turquoise, with its geological splendor and cultural significance, continues to be a gemstone cherished by people around the world. In Arizona, turquoise has a rich history of mining and cultural association with Native American tribes. The state’s geological wealth and the presence of copper deposits and their associated turquoise have made it a significant source of this captivating gem.