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The Permian Period, spanning from approximately 299 to 252 million years ago of the Paleozoic Era, is a critical epoch in Earth’s history marked by notable geological and biological changes.

Continental Configuration and Paleogeography: During the Permian, the supercontinent of Pangaea was fully assembled, bringing together most of Earth’s land masses. Gondwana, in the southern hemisphere, was a major component of Pangaea, while Laurasia, in the northern hemisphere, was formed by the amalgamation of smaller land masses.

Climate and Pangaea: The vast extent of Pangaea significantly affected climate patterns. With the supercontinent positioned near the equator, there were extremes of temperature, from hot and arid conditions in interior regions to milder climates along coastlines.

Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems: Marine ecosystems during the Permian continued to support a diverse range of organisms, including corals, brachiopods, mollusks, and reptiles. On land, forests of early conifers and other gymnosperms dominated, contributing to the expansion of terrestrial ecosystems.

Formation of Supercontinent Pangaea: The collision and convergence of landmasses during the Permian led to the final assembly of Pangaea. This tectonic activity resulted in the formation of mountain ranges, such as the Ural Mountains in present-day Russia.

Formation of Deserts and Red Beds: The Permian witnessed the formation of extensive desert environments in interior regions of Pangaea. These arid conditions led to the accumulation of reddish sedimentary rocks known as “red beds,” which are characteristic of this period.

Siberian Traps and Volcanism: One of the most significant geological events of the Permian was the eruption of the Siberian Traps, a massive volcanic province in present-day Siberia. This volcanic activity released large amounts of lava and gases into the atmosphere, potentially contributing to climate changes and the Permian-Triassic Extinction event.

Permian-Triassic Extinction: The Permian Period concluded with the most severe mass extinction event in Earth’s history, known as the Permian-Triassic Extinction or “The Great Dying.” Approximately 96% of marine species and a significant portion of terrestrial life forms went extinct. This event had a profound impact on the planet’s ecosystems and the subsequent evolution of life.

Sedimentary Rocks and Fossils: Permian rocks consist of a variety of sedimentary deposits, including sandstones, shales, and limestone. Fossilized remains of plants, marine organisms, and early reptiles are common in these rocks, offering insights into the life forms of the time.

Mineral Resources and Economic Significance: Permian rocks are associated with the formation of various mineral resources, including coal and oil. These resources have been valuable for human societies and industries. In summary, the Permian Period is characterized by the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea, diverse ecosystems on land and in the sea, volcanic activity, and the catastrophic Permian-Triassic Extinction. The geological events and changes during this period laid the foundation for the subsequent evolution of life and landscapes on Earth.