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Pangaea (also spelled “Pangea”) refers to a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, approximately 335 to 175 million years ago. It was the result of the amalgamation of most of Earth’s landmasses into a single large landmass. Pangaea is a key concept in the study of plate tectonics and the Earth’s geological history.

Key points about Pangaea include:

  1. Supercontinent Formation: Pangaea formed as a result of the movements of tectonic plates over millions of years. It was the result of the convergence and collision of several smaller landmasses that eventually joined together to form a single, massive landmass.
  2. Continental Drift: The theory of continental drift, proposed by Alfred Wegener in the early 20th century, suggested that Earth’s continents were once connected in a single supercontinent that later drifted apart. This idea eventually laid the foundation for the theory of plate tectonics.
  3. Configuration: Pangaea was surrounded by a single large ocean called Panthalassa, which covered much of Earth’s surface. The northern part of Pangaea was referred to as Laurasia, while the southern part was known as Gondwana.
  4. Breakup: The breakup of Pangaea began around 175 million years ago during the Mesozoic era. The landmass started to rift and break apart into smaller continents that eventually drifted to their current positions.
  5. Impact on Evolution: The breakup of Pangaea had significant impacts on Earth’s climate and ecosystems. It led to the opening of new ocean basins, changes in ocean currents, and shifts in habitats for plants and animals. These changes played a role in the evolution and diversification of species.
  6. Modern Continents: The continents that we recognize today are the fragmented remnants of Pangaea. For example, North America and Eurasia were once part of Laurasia, while South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, and the Indian subcontinent were part of Gondwana.
  7. Geological Features: The presence of similar rock formations, fossils, and geological structures across continents that were once part of Pangaea provides evidence for its existence and the subsequent breakup.

Pangaea is a critical concept in understanding the history of Earth’s continents, the mechanisms of plate tectonics, and the ever-changing nature of our planet’s surface. It is a testament to the dynamic and interconnected nature of Earth’s geological processes over millions of years.