Skip to content


Mollusca is a diverse and large phylum of invertebrate animals that includes various species of snails, clams, octopuses, and other creatures. Mollusks are characterized by their soft bodies, often protected by a hard external shell, though some mollusks lack shells altogether. They inhabit a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial environments and play important roles in ecosystems as both predators and prey.

Description: Mollusca is one of the most diverse and successful phyla in the animal kingdom, with an estimated 100,000 to 200,000 living species identified so far. Mollusks exhibit an array of sizes, shapes, and ecological roles, making them a prominent group in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems.

Key characteristics of mollusks include:

  1. Soft Body: Mollusks possess a soft, unsegmented body that is usually divided into three main parts: the head, the visceral mass (containing organs), and the foot (used for locomotion and attachment).
  2. Shell: Many mollusks have an external shell composed of calcium carbonate that provides protection from predators and environmental conditions. The shell can have diverse shapes, including spirals, cones, and bivalved forms.
  3. Mantle: The mantle is a specialized layer of tissue that secretes the shell in mollusks with shells. In some mollusks, the mantle can expand to envelop the body and form a cavity known as the mantle cavity, which is involved in respiration and waste elimination.
  4. Radula: Most mollusks possess a radula, a unique feeding organ covered with tiny, rasping teeth that they use to scrape food particles from surfaces. The radula varies in structure depending on the mollusk’s diet.

The main groups of living mollusks include the following:

  1. Cephalopods: A subgroup of mollusks, cephalopods include animals like octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish. Cephalopods are known for their advanced nervous systems, large brains, and complex behaviors. Some, like the octopus, have the ability to change color and texture for camouflage and communication.
  2. Bivalves: Bivalve mollusks have two hinged shells and include species like clams, mussels, and oysters. They typically live in aquatic environments and are filter feeders, using their gills to extract food from water.
  3. Gastropods: Gastropods are mollusks with a single, coiled shell or no shell at all. Snails and slugs are examples of gastropods. They inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial habitats and exhibit diverse feeding strategies.

Mollusks play crucial roles in ecosystems. They serve as prey for various animals, including fish, birds, and other invertebrates. Some mollusks, like bivalves, help filter water and improve water quality. Others, such as octopuses and squids, are skilled predators that contribute to controlling the populations of their prey.

The study of mollusks, known as malacology, encompasses aspects of biology, ecology, and paleontology. Mollusks have left a rich fossil record that provides insights into Earth’s history and evolutionary processes.