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An iceberg is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off from a glacier or an ice shelf and has floated into open water. The term “iceberg” is often associated with its most visible part, the portion that rises above the water surface, but the majority of an iceberg’s mass remains submerged beneath the water.

Icebergs are formed through a process called calving, in which chunks of ice break away from the edge of a glacier or ice shelf. This can happen due to the natural movement and flow of the ice, as well as the effects of melting and the forces exerted by surrounding water and other ice.

The visible portion of an iceberg, known as the “tip” or “head,” can vary in shape and size, ranging from small chunks to massive structures that are several kilometers long and hundreds of meters high.

The submerged part of the iceberg called the “tail” or “foot,” can extend deep underwater and is often larger in volume than the visible portion.

Icebergs can pose hazards to maritime navigation, as their size and presence can make them difficult to spot, especially during foggy or low-visibility conditions. To mitigate these risks, ships and vessels are cautious when navigating through regions known for iceberg activity, such as the North Atlantic near Greenland.

The shape and size of icebergs depend on various factors, including the size of the glacier or ice shelf from which they calve, the way in which they break off, and the subsequent melting and erosion by ocean currents and waves. As icebergs drift through open water, they can change shape, break apart, and melt due to the warmer surrounding waters. Icebergs have been of scientific interest not only for their potential navigational hazards but also for the insights they provide into ocean currents, climate patterns, and the dynamics of glaciers and ice shelves. The study of icebergs contributes to our understanding of how ice and water interact in polar regions and their impact on global climate systems.