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Occurs in Pinal County. Common in Arizona.

Chemical Formula: Fe2O3

Specific Gravity: 5.3-5.3

Luster: Metallic to earthy

Hardness: 5.5-6.5

Hematite is an iron oxide mineral known for its reddish-brown to black color. It often forms botryoidal masses, as well as shiny metallic crystals.

Next Pinal County mineral: Hemihedrite

A Rich Red Iron Ore

Hematite is a fascinating and important mineral that holds a prominent place in the world of geology and mineralogy. It is an iron oxide mineral with the chemical formula Fe2O3 and is widely recognized for its striking red color and metallic luster. Throughout history, hematite has been valued for its use in pigments, and jewelry, and as an important source of iron ore.

Formation and Occurrence

Hematite forms through a variety of geological processes, and it is one of the most abundant iron-bearing minerals on Earth. It can be found in sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Hematite commonly occurs in banded iron formations (BIFs), which are sedimentary rocks rich in iron and silica that were deposited in ancient oceans billions of years ago.

BIFs are primarily composed of alternating layers of hematite or magnetite (another iron oxide mineral) and chert (a type of silica-rich rock). These rocks are valuable sources of iron ore and have played a crucial role in the development of human civilizations.

Hematite also forms in hydrothermal and metamorphic environments, where the iron-bearing fluids interact with pre-existing rocks. Additionally, hematite can result from weathering and alteration processes involving other iron-bearing minerals, transforming them into hematite-rich materials.

Physical and Optical Properties

Hematite’s most striking characteristic is its color, which ranges from silver-gray to black and, most notably, to a deep red hue. This red coloration is responsible for its name, as the word “hematite” is derived from the Greek word “haima,” meaning blood, owing to its blood-red appearance when powdered.

Hematite exhibits a metallic luster when polished, contributing to its use in jewelry and ornamental objects. It is opaque, meaning that light cannot pass through it, and its streak color is reddish-brown, distinctly different from its external appearance.

In terms of crystal structure, hematite crystallizes in the trigonal system and forms rhombohedral or tabular crystals. However, it is more commonly found as massive, botryoidal, or stalactitic aggregates, often creating beautiful and distinctive specimens.

Iron Ore and Industrial Applications

One of the most significant things about hematite is its role as an iron ore. Hematite is a primary source of iron, the most commonly used metal in various industrial applications. As an iron ore, hematite undergoes a series of processes to extract the iron content and reduce impurities.

Iron extracted from hematite is essential for steel production. The development of iron and steel production has been a key factor in shaping modern societies and economies.

Hematite is also used as a pigment, known as “red ochre” or “hematite red,” which has been utilized since ancient times in cave paintings, rock art, and as a coloring agent in pottery and artifacts. The vivid red color of hematite is prized for its stability and resistance to fading over time.

Jewelry and Ornamental Use

Hematite’s metallic luster and rich red color make it a popular choice for jewelry and ornamental objects. Polished and faceted hematite beads and cabochons are commonly used in necklaces, bracelets, and earrings. Hematite jewelry not only offers an elegant appearance but also exhibits a subtle magnetic property that adds to its allure.

Metaphysical and Healing Properties

Beyond its geological and industrial significance, hematite is also associated with metaphysical and healing properties. Some believe that hematite has grounding and balancing qualities, promoting feelings of stability, courage, and vitality. It is thought to enhance focus and concentration while offering protection against negativity.

In alternative medicine, hematite is believed to have healing properties, particularly in relation to blood-related disorders. It is said to aid in improving blood circulation and supporting the body’s natural healing processes.

Environmental Considerations

Mining and processing hematite for iron ore can have environmental impacts, including habitat disruption and water pollution if not managed properly. Responsible mining practices and environmental safeguards are necessary to minimize adverse effects and ensure sustainable extraction.


Hematite’s deep red color, metallic luster, and rich iron content have made it a captivating and valuable mineral throughout human history. From its use in ancient pigments and art to its modern role as a crucial source of iron ore for steel production, hematite has played a significant role in shaping human civilizations.