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Occurs in Pinal County. Common in Arizona. See also evaporite.

Gypsum sphere
Gypsum sphere

Chemical Formula: CaSO4·2H2O

Specific Gravity: 2.2-2.3

Luster: Vitreous to silky

Hardness: 2

Gypsum is a hydrated calcium sulfate mineral that forms as clear to white or light-colored crystals. It is commonly used in construction materials and as a mineral specimen.

Next Pinal County mineral: Halite

An Essential Mineral with Diverse Applications

Gypsum sphere
Gypsum sphere

Gypsum is an essential mineral that has been utilized by humans for various purposes throughout history. It is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 · 2H2O) and forms in a wide range of environments, from marine sedimentation to hydrothermal systems.

Formation and Occurrence

Gypsum forms through the process of evaporation, which is a common mechanism in both marine and terrestrial environments. It typically occurs in sedimentary rocks, where evaporation of seawater or saline lakes results in the concentration of dissolved calcium and sulfate ions. As the concentration reaches the saturation point, gypsum crystals precipitate, eventually leading to the formation of thick layers or beds.

In arid regions like Arizona, saline lakes or playas can be significant sources of gypsum deposition. One well-known example is the “White Sands” gypsum dunes in New Mexico, where vast expanses of gypsum sand were formed through the evaporation of ancient lakes. Similarly, gypsum can precipitate in caves when mineral-rich water seeping through the limestone or other host rock evaporates, leaving behind gypsum formations like stalactites and stalagmites.

Physical and Optical Properties

Gypsum is known for its distinctive physical and optical properties. Its most recognizable characteristic is its softness, ranking only 2 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. This means that gypsum can be easily scratched with a fingernail and is significantly softer than common materials like calcite.

Gypsum is usually colorless or white, but it may also appear in shades of gray, yellow, brown, or pink due to impurities. The mineral’s luster is typically described as vitreous to pearly, depending on the crystal faces or the nature of the surface.

One remarkable feature of gypsum is its property of twinning, where two or more crystals intergrow in a specific pattern. This twinning can result in a characteristic “swallowtail” or “fishtail” pattern, which is highly diagnostic of gypsum.

Hydration and Dehydration

Gypsum has a unique property known as hydrate-dehydrate phase transition. At room temperature, gypsum is stable and contains two water molecules (H2O) for every molecule of calcium sulfate (CaSO4). This is known as the dihydrate phase, as represented by the formula CaSO4 · 2H2O.

Upon heating to around 100°C (212°F), gypsum undergoes dehydration, losing its water molecules and transforming into anhydrite (CaSO4). This process is reversible, and when anhydrite is exposed to water, it absorbs the water molecules and reverts to gypsum in a process called hydration.

This hydration-dehydration property makes gypsum valuable in various industrial applications.

Industrial Applications

Gypsum has a wide range of industrial applications due to its unique properties and versatility. Some of the most significant uses of gypsum include


Gypsum is a vital component in the construction industry, where it is used to manufacture plaster, drywall, and cement. Plaster of Paris, a form of gypsum hemihydrate, is commonly used for interior wall finishes, creating decorative molding, and for casting molds.


Gypsum is used as a soil conditioner to improve soil structure and drainage. It enhances soil aeration and reduces the harmful effects of soil salinity by displacing sodium ions with calcium ions, promoting better plant growth.

Food and Beverages

Gypsum is employed in the food industry as a coagulant in tofu production and as a clarifying agent in brewing.


In the pharmaceutical industry, gypsum can be used as an excipient (inert additive) in the formulation of oral medications.

Art and Sculpture

Gypsum has a long history of use in artistic and sculptural applications. It is commonly used for creating detailed molds and casts for sculpture and art restoration.


Dental plaster, a form of gypsum, is used for dental impressions, models, and prosthetics.

Environmental Considerations

Gypsum mining and processing can have environmental impacts, including habitat disruption and water pollution if not managed properly. The extraction of gypsum from natural deposits should be done with sustainable practices and environmental safeguards to minimize adverse effects.

The use of gypsum in agriculture can play a positive role in improving soil quality, but excessive application should be avoided to prevent over-fertilization and potential runoff of nutrients into water bodies.


Gypsum is an indispensable mineral with a rich history of human use and applications. Its formation through evaporation in marine and terrestrial environments contributes to its vast geological occurrences worldwide. With its softness, twinning patterns, and unique hydration-dehydration property, gypsum remains a fascinating subject for mineralogists and geologists.

Hardness 2 Gypsum