Skip to content


A glacier is a large mass of ice that forms from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow over an extended period of time. Glaciers are dynamic and slow-moving features of the Earth’s surface, responding to changes in temperature, precipitation, and other environmental factors.

Glaciers are found in various parts of the world, predominantly in polar regions and high mountain ranges. They play a significant role in shaping the landscape through processes like erosion, transportation, and deposition of sediments. Glacial ice flows downhill under the influence of gravity, and this movement is typically imperceptible in human timescales, but it can have a profound impact over longer periods.

There are two main types of glaciers: valley glaciers and continental glaciers. Valley glaciers are also known as alpine glaciers and form in mountainous regions, confined within valleys. There are valley glaciers in the Sierra Nevada in California, and the Ruby Mountains in Nevada.

Continental glaciers, on the other hand, cover vast areas and are not confined to valleys. They are also referred to as ice sheets and are found in polar regions, like the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets.

Glaciers undergo a constant cycle of advance and retreat, driven by the balance between snow accumulation and ice melting or calving (the breaking off of ice chunks at the glacier’s terminus). During periods of greater snowfall, glaciers advance as new ice accumulates faster than it melts or breaks off. Conversely, during periods of warmer temperatures and reduced snowfall, glaciers retreat as more ice is lost than gained.

The movement of glaciers is influenced by the internal deformation of the ice and by the sliding of the glacier over its underlying bed. Glacial movement causes erosion of the landscape, creating characteristic landforms such as U-shaped valleys, cirques (bowl-shaped depressions), and moraines (accumulations of glacial debris).

Glaciers have been important indicators of past climate conditions, as the presence and extent of glacial ice can reveal information about temperature and precipitation patterns. The study of glaciers, known as glaciology, provides insights into Earth’s climatic history and contributes to our understanding of how climate change affects ice-covered regions. At this time, there are few if any glaciers that are not in retreat.