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Occurs in Pinal County. Common in Arizona.

Chemical Formula: CaF2

Specific Gravity: 3.0-3.3

Luster: Vitreous

Hardness: 4

Fluorite is a calcium fluoride mineral that comes in a wide range of colors. It often forms cubic or octahedral crystals and is used as a decorative and lapidary material.

Next Pinal County mineral: Fornacite

A Colorful and Versatile Mineral

Fluorite, also known as fluorspar, is a fascinating and versatile mineral captivating geologists, mineralogists, and collectors alike. It is a calcium fluoride (CaF2) crystal, known for its wide range of vivid colors and exceptional fluorescence under ultraviolet light.

Formation and Occurrence

Fluorite forms in a variety of geological settings, predominantly through hydrothermal and sedimentary processes. It is often associated with hydrothermal veins and is frequently found in association with metallic ores like lead, zinc, and copper. In these veins, mineral-rich fluids deposit fluorite as a gangue mineral (an unwanted mineral in a mine), forming attractive and distinctive octahedral or cubic crystals.

Additionally, fluorite can develop in sedimentary environments, where it precipitates from marine or other water bodies due to the presence of dissolved fluoride ions. Sedimentary fluorites are commonly found in limestones and dolomites, where they may occur as lenses or layers.

Fluorite also forms in hydrothermal replacement deposits, where existing minerals are altered by hot fluids carrying fluorine. This process can result in massive or banded formations of fluorite, often exhibiting a wide range of colors.

Physical and Optical Properties

Fluorite exhibits a fascinating array of physical and optical properties. Its most distinctive feature is its wide range of colors, which can include purple, blue, green, yellow, pink, and even colorless varieties. These colors are due to the presence of trace elements or impurities within the crystal lattice, with each hue resulting from different combinations of elements.

Fluorite is known for its strong fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) light. Many specimens emit a vivid glow when exposed to UV light, a phenomenon known as “fluorescence.” This property has earned fluorite the nickname “the most colorful mineral in the world.”

Fluorite is relatively hard, ranking 4 on the Mohs scale, and exhibits a vitreous to resinous luster, depending on the specific crystal faces and transparency. It is often transparent to translucent, allowing light to pass through the crystal and contribute to its enchanting appearance.

Crystal Habit and Twinning

Fluorite crystals typically occur as cubes or octahedra, reflecting the symmetry of its crystal lattice. However, other crystal habits, such as dodecahedra and combinations of these forms, can also be found. The cubic habit is particularly common and is highly sought after by mineral collectors due to its geometric perfection.

Fluorite also exhibits twinning, a phenomenon where multiple crystals intergrow in specific orientations. Twinning can create complex patterns and enhance the visual appeal of fluorite specimens.

Industrial Applications

Fluorite’s unique properties and diverse colors make it valuable for numerous industrial applications.

Flux in Metallurgy

Fluorite is used as a flux in the metallurgical industry to lower the melting point of metals during smelting processes, facilitating the removal of impurities and promoting better metal extraction.

Hydrofluoric Acid Production

The most significant industrial use of fluorite is in the production of hydrofluoric acid (HF). HF is a key component in various industrial processes, including the production of refrigerants, aluminum, and uranium. Additionally, HF is used in the etching of glass and the manufacturing of high-octane gasoline.

Optical and Lenses

High-quality transparent fluorite crystals are used in the production of optical lenses and prisms for cameras, telescopes, and microscopes. Its low dispersion and excellent light transmission properties make it valuable for precise optical instruments.

Gemstone and Carvings

Fluorite’s vibrant colors and transparency make it popular among gem and mineral collectors. It is also used in jewelry and as decorative carvings and sculptures.

Ceramic and Glass Industry

Fluorite is employed as a flux in ceramic and glass manufacturing, helping to reduce firing temperatures and improve the finished product’s clarity.


Fluorite’s captivating colors, exceptional fluorescence, and diverse industrial applications make it a remarkable and cherished mineral in the world of geology, mineralogy, and commerce. Its formation in various geological settings, as well as its unique physical and optical properties, contribute to its allure. From metallurgy to optics, fluorite plays a vital role in many industries, while its beauty and variety of colors make it a sought-after gemstone and collector’s item.

Hardness 4 Fluorite