Eukaryotic refers to the type of cellular organization found in organisms that have cells containing membrane-bound organelles and a distinct nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells, which lack these membrane-bound structures. The term “eukaryotic” is derived from the Greek words “eu,” meaning true, and “karyon,” meaning nucleus.
In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is enclosed within a well-defined nucleus, separated from the rest of the cell by a nuclear membrane. Additionally, eukaryotic cells possess various membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes, each performing specific functions within the cell.
Eukaryotic organisms include a wide range of life forms, such as animals, plants, fungi, and protists. As a group, these are called eukaryotes and belong to the domain Eukarya. The presence of compartmentalized structures and a nucleus in eukaryotic cells enables these organisms to carry out specialized functions and complex processes, contributing to their diversity and adaptability in various environments.