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The process of partial melting of rocks, usually deep within the Earth’s crust, resulting in the formation of new melt and leaving behind residual solid minerals.

Anatexis, in geology, refers to the process of partial melting of rocks under high-temperature conditions. This process occurs when rocks are subjected to elevated temperatures that are typically associated with deep-seated geological processes, such as tectonic activity and the movement of molten material within the Earth’s crust and mantle.

During anatexis, only a portion of the rock actually melts, leaving behind a mixture of molten material and solid residue. The exact amount of melting and the composition of the resulting melt depend on factors such as the temperature, pressure, mineral composition, and presence of fluids in the rock. The melt that is produced can be either magma (if it remains beneath the Earth’s surface) or lava (if it reaches the surface through volcanic activity).

Anatexis plays a crucial role in various geological processes:

  1. Formation of Magma: The partial melting of the Earth’s mantle is a fundamental process in the generation of magma. Magma is responsible for the formation of igneous rocks and the building of volcanic landforms.
  2. Formation of New Rocks: Anatexis can lead to the creation of new rocks with distinct mineral compositions and properties. As minerals melt and then recrystallize during cooling, different minerals may crystallize from the melt, forming new rock types.
  3. Metamorphism: Anatexis can also occur during metamorphic processes, where high temperatures and pressures lead to the partial melting of rocks. This can result in the formation of new minerals and changes in the mineralogy and texture of the rock.
  4. Geological Evolution: The study of anatexis and the minerals produced during partial melting provides valuable information about the thermal history and geological evolution of a region.

Anatexis is a complex process that is studied by geologists to better understand the behavior of rocks and minerals under extreme heat and pressure conditions. It contributes to our understanding of the Earth’s interior processes, the formation of geological structures, and the creation of various rock types.